Motivation means inducement to do something i.e. the process of making subordinates to act in a desired manner in order to achieve organisational goals.
Three inter related terms — motive, motivation and motivators.
A motive is an inner state that activates and directs a human behaviour towards goals.
Motives arise out of the needs of individuals non-fulfillment of which causes restlessness whereas realisation of that motive reduces such restlessness.
Some motives are – hunger, thirst, security, affiliation, need for comfort, recognition etc.,
Motivation is the process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals. Motivation depends upon satisfying needs of people.
Motivator is the technique used to motivate people in an organisation. Different motivators used are pay, bonus, promotion, recognition, praise, responsibility etc.
Features of Motivation:
- Motivation is an Internal feeling: The human urges, drives ,desires, aspirations or needs are internal that influence human behaviour.
Example: Urge or desire to possess a car, own house, reputation in the society. These urges are
internal to an individual.
- Motivation results in goal directed behaviour:
Motivation results in changing the human behaviour to achieve certain goals.
Example: An employee may be given promotion in the job with the objective of improving his performance. If the employee is interested in promotion, he will definitely change his behaviour to improve performance.
- Motivation can be positive or negative:
Positive motivation provides positive rewards like increase in pay, promotion, recognition etc. Negative motivation uses negative means like punishment, stopping increments, threatening etc.
Generally positive motivation is used. Negative motivation is used only when positive motivation fails.
- Motivation is a complex process
There are individual differences in employees due to sex, study, experience, region, religion, family etc. resulting in difference of their expectations, perceptions and reactions. Same motivators cannot be used for all employees.
Motivation process is based on human needs.
An unsatisfied need of an individual creates tension which stimulates his or her drives. These drives generate a search behaviour to satisfy such need. If such need is satisfied, the individual is relieved of tension.
Importance of Motivation:
Motivation becomes important as it helps to identify and satisfy the needs of employees that results in improvement of their performance. The importance of motivation can be understood from its following benefits:
- Improvement in levels of performance:
When employees needs are satisfied, they put in their best efforts and energies in their work which helps to improve their performance that results in the improvement of organisation performance.
- Positive change in attitudes:
By providing suitable rewards , supervisor gives positive encouragement and praise for the good work done by the employees. This way the workers are likely to develop positive attitude towards the work for the work they earlier dislike.
- Reduction in employee turnover:
Lack of motivation results in many employees leaving the organisation. High rate of turnover makes it necessary to make new recruitment and training resulting in need of additional requirement of time, effort and money. Thus, motivation helps in reduction of employee turnover which saves the cost of new recruitment and training.
- Reduction in absenteeism:
Bad working conditions, inadequate rewards, lack of recognition, poor relations with supervisors and colleagues etc. are some important reasons for absenteeism but all these problems can become minor with the help of motivation making the work pleasant and workers regular at work.
- Reduction in people resistance:
Motivation helps in introducing the changes smoothly without much resistance from people. When manager convinces his subordinates that proposed changes will bring additional rewards for them, they readily accept the change.