Management

Management is an art of getting things done through others. It is a group of persons responsible for carrying on a business. It is a separate subject of study.

Administration

It is responsible for overall policy making after fixing the objectives and framing the plans.

Management has broadly three levels

Top level is concerned with framing plans and policies.

Middle level is concerned with implementation of plans.

Lower level is concerned with getting the work from workers by giving them instructions.

Coordination

It means integration of activities and efforts for the achievement of group goals.

Planning

It involves taking decisions regarding what, why when, how etc.

Organizing

It means bringing together all the resources to utilize for the achievement of goals. It also means designing a structural framework of employees for achieving the goals of an enterprise.

Formal: It means under rules and regulations, planned.

Informal : Unplanned, automatic and spontaneous.

Authority means the right to take decisions.

Responsibility  is an obligation to do the work.

Line officers

Persons having decision making authority and having direct control over the subordinates.

Staff officers

These are the specialists or experts attached to the line officers for the purpose of giving suggestions.

Delegation

This is handing over task, giving authority and creating responsibility for doing the work.

Centralization

Concentration of authority at top level management.

Decentralization

Dispersal of authority at different levels of management.

Staffing

Function of management concerned with acquiring, maintaining and developing the workforce of an enterprise.

Recruitment

Informing and stimulating the prospective candidates to apply for the job in an organization.

Selection

It is choice of the best possible candidate to fill a vacant job in an organization.

Training

Imparting knowledge in a particular skill relating to the job.

Remuneration

It is the reward for the services rendered by the employee to the organization.

Incentive

It is the technique used to encourage employees for better performance.

Motivation

It is the process to encourage employees for better performance.

Direction

It means giving instructions, supervising, motivating, leading and communicating, for activating the plans.

Supervision

Overseeing the employees at work.

Leadership

Influencing the other persons to get the work done.

Communication

Exchange of ideas, information, opinions etc.

Controlling

It means to check whether the work has been done according to the plans, objectives achieved, if not, finding causes and taking corrective actions.

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