(a) Planning

Planning is deciding in advance, what is to be done, when it is to be done, how it is to be done. It is concerned with the choice of best possible course of action out of many alternatives available and involves forecasting, establishing targets, developing the policies and programming and scheduling the action, procedure, etc.

(b) Organising

Organizing  is concerned with the implementation of plans. This function involves determining the authority and responsibility relationships and coordination among functions, departments and personnel at various levels to ensure smooth and effective function together in accomplishing the objective by utilizing the resources; physical as well as human.

(c) Staffing

Staffing is concerned with acquiring, maintaining and developing the workforce for performing various activities to be performed for achievement of goals. It includes the functions of recruitment, training and development, placement and remuneration, and performance appraisal of the employees.

(d) Directing

Directing function of management includes guiding the subordinates, supervising their performance, communicating effectively and motivating them. A manager has to command and issue instructions to his subordinates, keep a watch on their performance, understand their needs and inspire them to do their best and encourage initiative and creativity.

(e) Controlling

 Controlling is concerned with ensuring the actual performance in accordance with the planned performance. It involves establishing performance standards and measuring the actual performance with the standards set and if differences are noticed, corrective steps are taken.

(f) Coordination

Co-ordination means integration of activities and synchronization of efforts of different employees of different departments and units of an enterprise to achieve the organization goals.This function is required in all functions of management.Most of the experts do not consider this as a separate function but as an essence of Management and a force that binds all other functions together for the purpose of achieving the management goals.

Principles of Management

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